A patient with nephritic syndrome may experience a variety of symptoms. The symptoms depend on the form of the syndrome and the severity of kidney damage. Common symptoms of the condition include blood in urine, edema, and low urinary volume (oliguria). The amount of urine a patient can produce in a day varies from 500 mL to more than a thousand mL. Blood in urine may be micro or macro-hematuria.
The onset of the disease is abrupt, but its course is variable. The symptoms of nephritic syndrome can start suddenly and develop gradually. Some people may experience symptoms as early as adolescence. If the symptoms of nephrotic syndrome aren’t present at diagnosis, doctors may suggest dialysis or other treatments for the patient. This treatment involves the use of a machine to filter the blood.
The severity of clinical symptoms is a determining factor in the prognosis. Symptoms of nephritic syndrome may include severe oliguria, dysmorphic red blood cells, and RBC casts. Diagnosis of the disease can be made through history, physical examination, and renal biopsy. Depending on the cause of the disease, treatment and prognosis will differ.
The symptoms of nephritic syndrome may also include dyspnea or diaphragmatic compression. Proteinuria usually ranges in the sub-nephrotic range but can sometimes reach the nephrotic range. The presence of protein in the urine should be checked with a 24-hour urinary protein assay. Plasma creatinine levels should also be monitored to assess renal function and estimate GFR. If there are underlying health conditions, blood cultures will be performed.